Author of Concrete: Real Estate and the Remaking of Jim Crow South Florida which will be published this year by the University of Chicago Press. Nathan Connolly’s book outlines how geographic segregation, steeped in discriminatory laws that dominated African-Americans in Southern states from around 1876 and well into the 1960s, continued after those laws were abolished. With the aid of property owners and developers—both black and white—on either end of the real estate spectrum, “separate but equal” policies were transformed into biracial political alliances that augmented longtime racist housing practices. Those alliances courted politicians, fought against zoning changes, and subsidized public housing plans, while reinforcing long-standing dividing lines within the local real estate market.